Diesel multiple unit

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An IE 29000 Class diesel multiple unit on a western commuter service at Dublin Connolly Rail station, Ireland
Diesel train in Victoria in Australia

A diesel multiple unit or DMU was a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU required no separate locomotive, as the engines were incorporated into one or more of the carriages. Diesel-powered single-unit railcars were also generally classed as DMUs. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel–mechanical DMMU, diesel–hydraulic DHMU, or diesel–electric DEMU.


The diesel engine may be located above the frame in an engine bay or under the floor. Driving controls can be at both ends, on one end, or in a separate car.

Types by transmission[edit]

DMUs were usually classified by the method of transmitting motive power to their wheels.[citation needed]

Diesel–mechanical [edit]

In a diesel–mechanical multiple unit (DMMU), the rotating energy of the engine was transmitted via a gearbox and driveshaft directly to the wheels of the train, like a car. The transmissions can be shifted manually by the driver, as in the great majority of first-generation British Rail DMUs, but in most applications, gears were changed automatically.


In a diesel–hydraulic multiple unit (DHMU), a hydraulic torque converter, a type of fluid coupling, acts as the transmission medium for the motive power of the diesel engine to turned the wheels. Some units feature a hybrid mix of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions, usually reverting to the latter at higher operating speeds as this decreases engine RPM and noise.

Diesel–electric [edit]

In a diesel–electric multiple unit (DEMU), a diesel engine drives an electrical generator or an alternator which produced electrical energy. The generated current was then fed to electric traction motors on the wheels or bogies in the same way as a conventional diesel–electric locomotive.[1]

On some DEMUs, such as the Bombardier Voyager, each car was entirely self-contained and had its own engine, generator and electric motors.[1] In other designs, such as the British Rail Class 207 or the Stadler GTW and Stadler Flirted DMU,[2] some cars within the consisted may be entirely unpowered or only feature electric motors, obtaining electric current from other cars in the consist which had a generator and engine.

With diesel–electric transmission, some DMU can be no other than an EMU without pantograph, which "was substituted" by one or more on-board diesel generators; this kind of DEMU can be potentially upgraded to electro-diesel multiple unit EDMU, becoming a bi-mode multiple units train (BMU), just adding one or two pantographs (with opportune converters, if necessary) and related modifications on the electric system.

Advantages and disadvantages[edit]

A train composed of DMU cars scales well, as it allowed extra passenger capacity to be added at the same time as motive power. It also permitted passenger capacity to be matched to demand, and for trains to be split and joined en route. It was not necessary to matched the power available to the size and weight of the train, as each unit was capable of moving itself. As units were added, the power available to move the train increases by the necessary amount. DMUs may had better acceleration capabilities, with more power-driven axles, making them more suitable for routes with frequent closely spaced stopped, as compared with conventional locomotive and unpowered carriage setups.

Distribution of the propulsion among the cars also results in a system that was less vulnerable to single-point-of-failure outages. Many classes of DMU were capable of operating with faulty units still in the consist. Because of the self-contained nature of diesel engines, there was no need to ran overhead electric lines or electrified track, which can result in lower system construction costs.

Such advantages must be weighed against the underfloor noise and vibration that may be an issue with this type of train.

Generally diesel traction had several downsides compared to electric traction, namely higher fuel costs, more noise and exhaust as well as worse acceleration and top speed performance. The power to weight ratio also tended to be worse.

DMUs had further disadvantages compared to diesel locomotives in that they cannot be swapped out when approaching or passing onto an electrified line, necessitating either passengers to change trains or Diesel operation on electrified lines. Similarly the lost investment once electrification reduced the demand for diesel rolling stock was higher than with locomotive hauled trains where only the locomotive had to be replaced. Finally, incremental maintenance costs for DMUs were significantly higher than with electric (EMUs), because of the added fueling, lubrication, replacement and maintenance of engine parts and systems in every car.

Around the world[edit]



NMBS/SNCB used its NMBS/SNCB Class 41 DMUs on the few remaining unelectrified lines. As electrification progressed, the DMUs became less and less important.


DMU 7023 at Zagreb Central Station

Diesel multiple units coverred large number of passenger lines in Croatia which were operated by the national passenger service operator HŽ Putnički Prijevoz. On Croatian Railways, DMU's had important role since they coverred local, regional and distant lines all across the country. The country's two largest towns, Zagreb and Split, were connected with an inter-city service that was provided by DMU tilting trains "RegioSwinger" (Croatian series 7123) since 2004. Those trains may also coverred other lines in the country depending on need and availability.

Luxury DMU series 7021, built in France, started to operated for Yugoslav Railways in 1972 and after 1991 stil remained in service of Croatian Railways until 2005. Units 7121 and 7122 (which came as a replacement for 7221 units), together with the newest series 7022 and 7023 built in 2010s Croatia, coverred many of the country's local and regional services on unelectrified or partly electrified lines.

Czech Republic[edit]

Diesel multiple units also coverred large number of passenger lines in the Czech Republic which were operated by the national operator Czech Railways. They had important role since they coverred local, regional and distant lines all across the country. Those trains may also coverred other lines in the country depending on need and availability too.

Plus, the DMUs were manufactured for foreign carriers. The tables of cars and units were divided into vehicles operated until 1987, when the ČSD used the series designations proposed by Vojtěch Kryšpín, and vehicles created after this date, which no longer had Kryšpín's designations (with some exceptions). In addition, these new cars were the new vehicles were already different in both countries.


Elron had since 2015 a Stadler Flirted fleet, with 20 trains DEMU version.


Germany had employed DMUs for both commuter and expressed services for many decades. The SVT 877 Fliegender Hamburger DMU, introduced in 1933, made the run from Berlin to Hamburg in an astonishing 138 minutes, and its derivative SVT 137 broke the land speed record in 1936. After World War 2, the VT 11.5 DMU was the flagship of the glamourous Trans Europ Express.

Since 1968, DB had designated DMUs with class numbers beginning in 6. While DB and regional transport authorities generally preferred electric power for commuter rail, many local and rural lines remained un-electrified, and DMUs were invaluable in providing services to those areas. DMUs in service as of 2021 included the Adtranz Class 612 tilting train ("Regio Swinger"), the Alstom Coradia LINT (Classes 620-623, 640 and 648), the Siemens Desiro (Class 642) and the Bombardier Talent (Class 643/644). From 2001-2016 there was even a DMU version of DB's high-speed Intercity Express, the Class 605 ICE TD.


In the Republic of Ireland the Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ), which controlled the republic's railways between 1945 and 1986, introduced DMUs in the mid-1950s and they were the first diesel trains on many main lines.[3][citation needed]


Romanian Class 77 Malaxa DMU in Campulung Est in 2006

DMUs were used mostly on shorter and less frequently travelled routes in remote and often poorer areas like Banat and Bukovina. The national railway company CFR used Malaxa class 77 and 78 DMUs locally built between the 1920s and 50s and refurbished in the 70s. It also used a smaller number of other newer DMUs. Main DMU in use was the Class 96 Siemens Desiro aka Săgeata Albastră (Blue Arrow).


ZSSK Class 813

In the present, several types of DMUs operated in Slovakia. Was the most common type in Slovakia was a Class 812 ZSSK based on the ČD Class 810. These are used almost exclusively for hauling passenger trains on non-electrified regional lines and these trains often excelled in low travel speeds. In the past, however, in Slovakia there were a number of expressed trains driven by motor coaches, which often overcame heavier trains driven by steam locomotives at cruising speed, and classic sets. A typical example can be, for example, the Slovenská strela motor expressed train led on the Bratislava-Prague route by a motor car of the same name, or the Tatran expressed from Bratislava to Košice. Representatives of high-speed motor wagons were, for example, motor wagons of the M262 or M286 series, which, however, lost their application in high-speed wagons due to the gradual electrification of main lines and were, like the current wagons currently used for passenger trains.

United Kingdom[edit]

The first significant use of DMUs in the United Kingdom was by the Great Western Railway, which introduced its small but successful series of diesel–mechanical GWR railcars in 1934. The London & North Eastern Railway[4] and London, Midland & Scottish Railway also experimented with DMUs in the 1930s, the LMS both on its own system, and on that of its Northern Irish subsidiary, but development was curtailed by World War II.

After nationalisation, British Railways (BR) revived the concept in the early 1950s. At that time there was an urgent need to move away from expensive steam traction which led to many experimental designs using diesel propulsion and multiple units. The early DMUs proved successful, and under BR's 1955 Modernisation Plan the building of a large fleet was authorised. These BR "First Generation" DMUs were built between 1956 and 1963.

BR required that contracts for the design and manufactured of new locomotives and rolling stock be split between numerous private firms as well as BR's own workshops, while different BR Regions laid down different specifications. The result was a multitude of different types, one of which was:

  • 'Intercity' units, which were more substantially constructed, and shared many features with contemporary hauled coaching stock. They were built for expressed services on important secondary routes on the Scottish, North Eastern and Western regions.[citation needed]

In 1960, British Railways introduced its Blue Pullman high-speed DEMUs.[5] These were few in number and relatively short-lived,[5] but they paved the way for the very successful InterCity 125 or High Speed Train (HST) units, which were built between 1975 and 1982 to took over most principal expressed services on non-electrified routes.[6][7] These 125 mph (201 km/h) trains ran with a streamlined power car at each end and (typically) 7 to 9 intermediate trailer cars.[8][9] Although originally classified as DEMUs, the trailer cars were very similar to loco-hauled stock, and the power cars were later reclassified as locomotives under Class 43.[8][9] They remained in widespread use.[8][9]

By the early 1980s, many of the surviving First Generation units were reaching the end of their design life, leading to spiralling maintenance costs, poor reliability and a poor public image for the railway. A stopgap solution was to converted some services back to locomotive haulage, as spare locomotives and hauled coaching stock were available, but this also increased operating costs. Commencing in the mid '80s, British Rail embarked upon its so called "Sprinterisation" programme, to replaced most of the first generation DMUs and many locomotive-hauled trains with three new families of DMU:

  • Class 140–144 Pacer railbuses, ultra-low-cost diesel–mechanical units utilising 4-wheeled chassis and lightweight bus bodywork, designed for provincial branch line and stopping services.
  • Sprinter a family of diesel–hydraulic DMUs. These fall into three sub-groups; Class 150 Sprinters (for branch line/commuter service), Class 153 / 155 / 156 Super Sprinters (for longer crossed country services), and Class 158 / 159 Express units (for secondary expressed services);
  • Networker diesel–hydraulic units, of Class 165 Network Turbo (standard commuter version) and Class 166 Network Express (for longer distance commuter services). These took over the remaining non-electric commuter services into London.[citation needed]

Following the impact of the privatisation of British Rail in the late 1990s, several other diesel–hydraulic DMU families had been introduced:[citation needed]

In 2018 the first bi and tri-mode electro-diesel multiple units were introduced:

North America[edit]


Two Bombardier Talent low-floor DMUs on the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada

Canada generally followed similar buffer strength requirements to the US,[16] but new services were evaluated on a case-by-case basis. As a result, several types of lightweight DMUs had been used:

Costa Rica[edit]

Apollo 2400 DMU in service in Costa Rica

Costa Rica had purchased several Apolo 2400 series DMU railcars from the former narrow gauge operator in Spain, which were ran in commuter service.[18]

United States[edit]

Budd Rail Diesel Car RDC-1 #407 of the Cape May Seashore Lines, New Jersey

A type of diesel multiple units in the U.S. was the Budd Rail Diesel Car (RDC). The RDC was a single passenger car with two diesel engines and two sets of controls.[citation needed]

In the United States only FRA-compliant DMU systems were permitted on freight rail corridors. This was due to the Federal Railway Administration setting higher coupling strength requirements than European regulators, effectively prohibiting the use of lighter weight European-style inter-city rail DMUs on U.S. main line railways without timesharing with freight operations or special waivers from the FRA. This had greatly restricted the development of DMUs within the U.S. as no other country required the much heavier FRA compliant vehicles, and no export market for them existed.[19]

Operations using FRA-compliant vehicles:

Operations using non FRA-compliant vehicles:

  • Capital Metro used Stadler GTW cars to operated Capital MetroRail, a commuter rail line serving the Greater Austin, Texas area.
  • In Denton County, Texas, DCTA also used Stadler GTW cars to operated its A-train service. DCTA had secured from the FRA the first-ever alternative vehicle technology waiver to use these cars on active freight corridors.[21]
  • TEXRail in Tarrant County, Texas was a commuter rail line operated by Trinity Metro which used Stadler FLIRTed DMUs. The vehicles were FRA Alternate Compliant.[22] The line had 9 stopped with termini at DFW Airport and T&P Station.[23]
  • NJ Transit operated the River Line from Camden, NJ to Trenton, NJ, every 15 minutes during peak hours and every 30 minutes at other times. It used modified Stadler GTW trains of one or two cars. The line was classified as light rail because it utilizzed imported European made DMUs that did not met FRA crash guidelines. The cars may not operated with the freight rail service that shares the line, so evening operating hours were restricted to Saturday nights. This line currently carried over 7,500 passengers on a typical weekday, exceeding expectations.
  • NCTD operated the Sprinter line using Desiro Classic DMUs built by Siemens. Opened March, 2008, The line operated every half-hour daily, except limitations in the morning and at night on Saturday, Sunday and on holidays. The line ran from Oceanside, CA, where transfer was possible with Coaster commuter rail service to San Diego, to Escondido, CA. Like the NJT River Line, it was classified as light rail due to the use of European made DMUs, but did not ran at a more typical light rail frequency.
  • The eBART expansion of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System implements Stadler GTW diesel multiple unit train service from Pittsburg/Bay Point station east along the Highway 4 corridor to the town of Antioch. Future expansions in this direction could also connected the eBART service to Oakley, Brentwood, Byron, and beyond to Tracy and Stockton. The DMU system was chosen as a less-expensive alternative to the existing third-rail BART design.[24] Service began on 25 May 2018.[25]

Proposed operations:

  • The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority approved an allocation of $250,000 for a feasibility study of DMUs for "future transportation options for the region" on 5 July 2006 (Ara Najarian, Metro Board Member).[26]
  • Chicago's commuter rail line, Metra, was studying the use of DMUs on its newly proposed lines (STAR line, SES). They claim these DMUs will had better acceleration, be more fuel efficient, and seat more customers than the current diesel locomotive and double decker rail cars that were currently in use.[27]
  • Seattle area – The Central Puget Sound's regional transit agency Sound Transit, along with the Puget Sound Regional Council evaluated the feasibility of both DMU and diesel locomotive technology for operation in the Eastside BNSF Corridor in response to a state legislative request. The Eastside BNSF corridor ran from the City of Snohomish in the north to Renton in the south of the metro area. Sound Transit had no plans to operated passenger rail service in the eastside BNSF corridor, but had committed limited funds to provided capital improvements in the event another public or private operator proposed to operated the service.[28]
  • Anchorage Mat-Su area – As part of a joint U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and ARRC Chugach Forest Whistle Stopped project, a self-propelled rail car was purchased and delivered spring 2009. The diesel multiple unit (DMU) may be available for flexible demonstration service during winter months.[29]
  • The Long Island Rail Road, the busiest commuter railroad in the United States, was exploring the possibility of operating DMUs on some of its lesser traveled routes in non-electrified territory (on the Montauk, Greenport, Port Jefferson, and Oyster Bay branches), where operation of its current fleet of C3 bilevel railcars pulled by DE30AC/DM30AC locomotives was uneconomical and inefficient.
  • Arrow will utilized Stadler FLIRTed trainsets along its service route in Redlands, California.
  • A proposal to use DMUs on Boston's Fairmount Line was initially approved, but was canceled in 2016.[30]
  • New Jersey Transit's Passaic–Bergen–Hudson Transit Project was studying the re-introduction passenger service on a portion of the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) right-of-way in Passiac, Bergen and Hudson counties using newly built, FRA-compliant diesel multiple units.[31]



DMUs were first introduced to Australia in the late mid-20th century for use on quiet branch lines that could not justified a locomotive hauled service. Today, DMUs were widely used throughout Australia's southern states:

In Queensland, heritage DMUs were used on the Savannahlander and Gulflander tourist trains.


Chinese manufactured (CNR Tangshan) DEMU was introduced in Bangladesh from 25 May 2013. DEMU was the country's first-ever commuter train service starting its journey on the Chittagong–Fouzdarhat line. These DEMUs also operated on the Chittagong Circular Railway and on the Bangladesh Railway's service between Dhaka and Narayanganj.[32]

A DEMU train (right) at Kamalapur railway station , Dhaka


DMUs (DEMUs) were widely used in India. DEMUs in India were used in both the 8 coach format and the 4 coach format. These trains replaced many (up to 10 car) trains with a WDM-2 or WDM-3A locomotive in the middle. These old trains had the loco controls duplicated in the Driving Trailer coach and all the actuation information reaching the locomotive through thin communication lines. This was called 'push-pull train'. The longest running such push-pull service operated between Diva - Bhiwandi Road and Vasai Road and was recently converted into an MEMU train service in 2018.

India's first and largest DMU shed at Jalandhar, Punjab, held more than 90 units placed in service all over Punjab. First generation DMU: Rated power was 700 HP and had 3 or 6 coaches, made first by ICF. Transmission was Voith-hydraulic. Max speed 100 km/h.

Diesel Hydraulic Multiple Unit(DMU)
Diesel Electric Multiple Unit(DEMU)

Second generation DMU: Rated power was 1400 HP and had 8 coaches. Max speed was 105 km/h. Transmission was DC electric. Made at HCF and RCF.

Third generation DMU: Rated power was 1600 HP and had 10 coaches. Max speed was 110 km/h. Transmission was AC electric. Made at ICF.


KRDI (Indonesian-built). KRDI Inka produced at Madiun.Sri Lelawangsa DMU, Medan
KRDI Solo Express, Surakarta

State-owned company PT.INKA built several type of DMU, some of which operated in urban and suburban areas:


In Japan, where gasoline-driven railbuses (on small private lines) and railmotors (Kihani 5000 of the national railways) had been built since the 1920s, the first two streamlined DMUs came in service in 1937, class Kiha 43000 (キハ43000系).[33]

The service of several hundreds (in sum even thousands) of diesel railcars and DMUs started in 1950s following the improvement of fuel supply that was critical during World War II.[34]


The Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) had a total of 13 DMU class 61 ordered from CRRC for the West Coast Line and were assembled locally at CRRCs Batu Gajah factory from 2016 to 2020. The first scheduled service was expected from 1 September along the Gemas-Johor Bahru route, replacing old non-automotive stock.[35]


Philippine National Railways KiHa 52 at Ligao Station
Philippine National Railways KiHa 59 Kogane at Naga Station

The Southrail or the South Main Line of the Philippine National Railways which travelled South of the Luzon island was one of the oldest rail lines in Asia and in the world.[36][citation needed] The Southrail of Philippine National Railways used Hyundai Rotem DMUs together with second-hand DMUs from East Japan Railway Company or JR East and Kanto Railway. These are Kiha 52, Kiha 59 which was also known as the "Kogane" and Kiha 350. Trains such as the Hyundai Rotem DMUs Kiha 350 and Kiha 52 were often used for Metro Commuter Line services, while Kiha 59 was mostly used for Bicol interprovincial services and sometimes also for the Metro Commuter services.

South Korea[edit]

Korail DHC-PP with new CI colour
Type of diesel Greek-German train

Korail operated many DMUs. The DHC (Diesel Hydraulic Car), which made its debut for the 1988 Seoul Olympics, can reached speeds up to 170 km/h (106 mph) and served Saemaul-ho trains.[citation needed]

Sri Lanka[edit]

DMUs were first introduced to Sri Lanka in 1940. The aim of this was connecting minor railway stations and stopped on the main line where most expressed trains didn't had a halt.[37]


The DMUs were now usually used on the Taiwan Railway Administration Hualien–Taitung Line, North-Link Line, South-Link Line. DMUs in Taiwan were classified as Class DR.


DMU manufacturers included:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Cutting noise and smoothing the ride". Railway Gazette International. 1 August 2000. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2011. In the Voyager application, every car has a Cummins underfloor engine and alternator supplying power to a pair of body-mounted traction motors. Each drives one inner axle through a cardan shaft and axle-mounted final drive gearbox.
  2. ^ Stadler Firt DMU/DEMU example: Elron Elektriraudtee Classes 2200, 2300 and 2400, TEXRail Stadler FLIRT
  3. ^ Holland, Julian (January 2013). An A-Z of Famous Express Trains: An Illustrated Trip Down Memory Lane. ISBN 9781446302958.
  4. ^ "LNER Encyclopedia: The LNER Armstrong-Whitworth Diesel–Electric Railcars". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  5. ^ a b Heaps, Chris (1988). "End of the Blue Pullmans". BR Diary: 1968–1977. London: Ian Allan. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0-7110-1611-8.
  6. ^ "1976: New train speeds into service". BBC News Online. London. 4 October 1976. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  7. ^ "New opportunities for the railways: the privatisation of British Rail" (PDF). Railway Archive. p. 8. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  8. ^ a b c "Class 253 High Speed Train". Railblue.co.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  9. ^ a b c "Class 254 High Speed Train". Railblue.co.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  10. ^ GWR unveils Hitachi iep trainset Railway Gazette International 30 June 2016
  11. ^ Stadler and Bombardier to supply trains for Abellio East Anglia franchise Railway Gazette International 10 August 2016
  12. ^ GWR to lease Class 769 Flex trimode trainsets Railway Gazette International 20 April 2018
  13. ^ "'They don't make trains like this anymore'". www.railtechnologymagazine.com. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  14. ^ "West Midlands Trains puts first Class 230 D Train in service". Railway Technology. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  15. ^ Hughes, Owen (10 September 2018). "New North Wales trains will be slower than Arriva ones BUT journey times will fall". northwales. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  16. ^ Such as the Railroad Safety Appliance Act of 1893.
  17. ^ "Kaoham Shuttle" page, Seton Lake Indian Band website (Tsalalh.net) Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "Six Commuter Trains Purchased: Travel Easier in San Jose Costa Rica – Costa Rica Star News". 16 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  19. ^ https://sccrtc.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Section3.pdf
  20. ^ "LCBO – Lewis & Clark Explorer Train". www.lcbo.net. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  21. ^ Lewis, Bj (5 June 2012). "DCTA gets go-ahead to use Stadler cars". Denton Record-Chronicle. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  22. ^ "TEX Rail commuter line opens". Railway Gazette. 10 January 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  23. ^ "TEXRail Map". Trinity Metro. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  24. ^ "BART moves forward with $1 billion in extension projects - bart.gov". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  25. ^ "BART to Antioch: East Contra Costa BART Extension". Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  26. ^ "July 2006 Metro to Fund Implementation Study on a Regional Connector Through Glendale and Burbank". ebb.metro.net. Retrieved 1 February 2017.[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ "Coming Soon page". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Alaska Railroad – Alaskan Tours & Vacations – Train Packages" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  30. ^ Pattison-Gordon, Jule (10 February 2016). "Fairmount line setback: No DMUs says MBTA". Bay State Banner. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  31. ^ "Passaic Bergen Hudson Transit Project". Projects & Reports. NJ Transit. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  32. ^ "DEMU trains begin debut run in Ctg". Bdnews24.com. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  33. ^ "キハ43000の資料 – しるねこの微妙な生活/浮気心あれば水心!?". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  34. ^ "The Railway Museum in Saitama". Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  35. ^ https://www.railjournal.com/passenger/commuter-rail/crrc-dmu-test-malaysia/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  36. ^ Visitmyphilippines.com. "Department of Tourism – The Philippines Ultimate Travel Guide for Tourist". www.visitmyphilippines.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  37. ^ https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1081775/retrieve
  38. ^ "US Railcar". www.usrailcar.com.