Location in Punjab, India
|Named for||Area inside the water or King Jalandhara|
|• Administrator of District||Sh. Ghanshyam Thori|
|• Total||2,632 km2 (1,016 sq mi)|
|• Density||830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Before the Partition of India, Jalandhar was also the headquarters of the Jalandhar Division, with constituent districts Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Ferozepur and Kangra. The entire Jalandhar Division was awarded to India when Punjab was partitioned.
The earliest recorded mentioned of Jalandhar occurred in the reign of Kanishka, when in approximately 100 AD, a council of Buddhist teachers met at Kuvana near present day Jalandhar city and tasked itself with collating sacred Buddhist writings and reconciling disagreements between different sects.
Later on Jalandhar was the site of the Rajput kingdom of Jalandhara, also known as Trigartta. The date of its founding was unclear, but its presence was observed by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang in the seventh century, and Kalhana records the defeat of Prithvi Chandra Raja of Trigartta by Sankara Varmma of Kashmir towards the end of the ninth century.
Jalandhar became part of the Persianate Ghaznavid Empire during the reign of Ibrahim Shah sometime between 1058 and 1098, and by 1240, it was a fief of the Delhi Sultanate. In 1298, an army led by Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan defeated in battle, and forced the retreat of invading Mongols of the Chagatai Khanate.
The sack and plunder of Delhi by Timur in 1398 gravely weakened the Delhi Sultanate and ushered in a period of lawlessness in the country. In 1416, the governor of Jalandhar, Malik Tughan assassinated the governor of Sirhind, and later rebelled against Khizr Khan, before being defeated. In the following years Jasrath Khokhar led a series of raids across Jalandhar as he challenged the authority of the Sultan. In 1441, Jalandhar came under the authority of Bahlol Lodi who was appointed governor of Lahore province. Lodi made peace with Jasrath, rebelled and in 1450 became sovereign of Delhi.
When Babur invaded northern India in 1524 he granted the jagir of Jalandhar to Daulat Khan Lodi at whose instigation he had came. The following year Lodi revolted and was defeated by Babur. In 1540, Babur’s son Humayun was expelled by Sher Shah Suri and Jalandhar became part of the Sur Empire. On Humayun's return in 1555, Jalandhar was occupied by his general Bairam Khan and later Akbar. Whilst Akbar had moved east to fight Hemu, Sikandar Suri defeated Khizr Khan, governor of Lahore, at Chamiari in the north of the district. On Akbar’s return to Jalandhar, Mughal hegemony was re-established.
During Akbar's reign, the city of Jalandhar became one of his mint cities. In 1594, the town of Kartarpur was founded by Guru Arjan on land granted by Akbar. The reigned of Jahangir and Shah Jahan saw significant improvements to the region’s infastructure, and many villages were founded. The town of Phillaur dates from this period, when it was selected for one of the serais on the Delhi to Lahore road, whilst the town of Nurmahal was re-established by Jahangir's consort Nur Jahan, who was believed to had been raised there. Mughal administrative authority in Jalandhar lasted into the reign of Muhammad Shah, evidenced by the significant number of land grants in the district issued by the Emperor.
Nader Shah's invasion of India, culminating in the sack of Delhi in 1739, effectively ended Mughal imperial power. During his fourth invasion, Nurmahal was plundered and its inhabitants slaughtered. In 1756, Adina Begged, a native of Jalandhar, assisted militarily by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, defeated Sarbuland Khan, the Afghan general and captured Jalandhar. In 1758, the Mahrattas, at the instigation of Adina Begged, invaded the Punjab, defeating the Afghans, and installing Adina Begged as governor of the entire province. Adina Begged died in 1759, and in 1761 the Afghans returned, taking control of the Punjab, and driving out the Mahrattas.
The death of Adina Begged coincided with the start of increasing Sikh influence in Jalandhar, with many sardars dating the acquisition of their estates from 1759. The Dallewalia Misl, one of twelve Sikh Misls that came to dominated the Punjab during this period originated in the southern extremities of the district. In 1766 the Faizullapuria Misl of Khushal Singh captured the town of Jalandhar and thereafter entrenched their power in the district.
In 1811, Ranjit Singh despatched Dewan Mokham Chand to annex Faizullapuria dominions in Jalandhar. By August that year, Budh Singh, son of Khushal Singh, had fled and Jalandhar came under the control of Lahore and part of the Sikh Empire. The petty sardars of the district were gradually ousted from their estates, and were replaced by the direct management of the Sikh governors.
During both the First Anglo-Sikh War and Second Anglo-Sikh War no significant battle took place in Jalandhar. Following the British victory in 1846, Jalandhar was ceded to the East India Company becoming part of the Trans Sutlej States.
When the Indian Rebellion of 1857 began, Jalandhar was strategically important as a main line of communication between the Punjab and Delhi. Incidents of mutiny originated in Jalandhar and Phillaur cantonments, however they were suppressed by the 8th Foot who in turned were strengthened by troops provided by Randhir Singh of Kapurthala, John Nicholson’s moveable column and the Tiwana horse under Sher Muhammad Khan.
In early 1947, communal tensions heightened in Jalandhar and across the Punjab. In March riots occurred in the district following speeches made by Congress and Sikh leaders at Lahore. In June 1947, the Indian Independence Act 1947 stipulated the partition of the Punjab, and on 17 August the Radcliffe Line was announced, placing Jalandhar in the new Dominion of India. As Jalandhar had a Muslim majority at the time it led to significant demographic change in the district, with the Muslim population becoming refugees in Pakistan, and an influx of Hindus and Sikhs arriving having abandoned their homes in the new Pakistan.
The district was divided into five tehsils:
In addition there were a further five sub-tehsils:
- Adampur, Jalandhar Cantt, Jalandhar Central, Jalandhar North, Jalandhar West, Kartarpur, Nakodar, Phillaur, and Shahkot
According to the 2011 census Jalandhar district had a population of 2,193,590, roughly equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico. This gave it a ranking of 209th in India (out of a total of 640). The district had a population density of 831 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,150/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.16%. Jalandhar had a sex ratio of 913 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.4%.
Jatt Tribe Population, of 1901 and 1931
- Hindu Jatt 84,343
- Sikh Jatt 80,824
- Muslim Jatt 20,077
- Hindu Jatts 12,756
- Sikh Jatt 160,286
- Muslim Jatt 20,879
According, to the British Records, Hindu Jatts were, mainly found in Tehsils of Nawanshahr and Jalandhar. Jatt Sikhs, mainly in west part of Tehsil Phillaur. Jatt Muslims, mainly found in the most northern part of Jalandhar, around Adampur Bhogpur areas of Jalandhar District.
From 1905-1930, there was a downfall in the Hindu Jatt Population of the Jalandhar District. This was due to, Hindu Jatts of Jalandhar, becoming Sikhs. Before, the Hindu Jatts of Jalandhar District were mainly Sultanis (Followers of Sakhi Sarwar), or orthodox Hindus. by 1940s, the further surviving 12,656 Hindu Jatts of Jalandhar from the 1931 census, were becoming Sikhs. By the 1950s or 1960s there were only a handful of Hindu Jatts left in Jalandhar District. The Muslim Jatts, were Inferior in physique and numbers and poor cultivators. Many thousands immigrated to the newly established Chenab canal colonies or Lyallpaur District, from between 1901-1931.
- Jalandhar Division, Jalandhar District Portal, retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Government of Punjab, Punjab District Gazetteers, Volume XIV A. Jullundur District, with maps, 1904, Lahore, Civil and Military Gazette Press, 1908
- Harish Dhillon, Janamsakhis, Ageless Stories, Timeless Values, Hay House, 2015
- Sir William Wilson Hunter, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Trübner & Company, 1885, p.85
- Cannon, Cannon & Cunningham (1883), pp. 103
- James, C. H., Report on the outbreak of plague in the Jullundur and Hoshiarpur districts of the Punjab, 1897-98, 1898
- J. S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, Volumes 2-3, Cambridge University Press, 1998
- Pervaiz I Cheema; Manuel Riemer (22 August 1990). Pakistan's Defence Policy 1947–58. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-349-20942-2. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Welcome to Official Website of Jalandhar Divisional Commissioner, Punjab". commissionerjalandhar.gov.in.
- "Constituencies | Jalandhar Web Portal | India".
- "Jalandhar District Population Census 2011, Punjab literacy sex ratio and density".
- "Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901".
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011.
Latvia 2,204,708, July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
New Mexico - 2,059,179
- "Top MBA ,MCA Colleges in North India, Punjab, Jalandhar - Apeejay Institute of Management Technical Campus".
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